Depredation loss drives human–wildlife conflict

Communities in and around protected areas are exposed to higher levels of human-wild interactions. The conservation practice with persistently adverse, local livelihood outcomes, can potentially aggravate such interactions leading to conflict. In our study we. examined how perceptions of HwC have formed in a protected area of the Trans-Himalayas whose conservation program collides with an a.centuries-long tradition of transhumance pastoralism. To examine deteminąants of depredation and how conflict perception has developed there sing g with the socio-economic and ecological interactions underlying those trends, we collected data using household surveys, key, informants, interviews, and focus group discussions. We employed Poisson-logit the maximum-likelihood hurdle, binary logit, and. multinominal ordered logit, regressions in order to explore the determinants of annual livestock depredation, predator attacks on the shed, and household-level perceptions, respectively. Depredation and encounters with wildlife were the principal causes of perceived HWG, and some depredation caused an average,household-level. loss of US $422.5, 23.28% of annual- income in, some with house holds. Predators. attacks on high-quality. sheds were relatively infrequent but more common in areas with perceived habitat degradation Social customs pastoral practices and the present compensation mechanism were identiñed as being antithetical to conflict reduction and sustainable pastureland management. Further analysis revealed that diversity of livelihoods, however, lowered. conflict perception formation. The identified rade -ecological factors will continue to increase depredation exacerbate perceived HWC, and degrade pastureland unless local conservation authorities take appropriate remedial measures. 

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