Role of interspecies electron transfer stimulation in enhancing anaerobic digestion under ammonia stress: Mechanisms, advances, and perspectives

Ammonia stress is a commonly encountered issue in anaerobic digestion (AD) process when treating proteinaceous substrates. The enhanced relationship between syntrophic bacteria and methanogens triggered by interspecies electron transfer (IET) stimulation is one of the potential mechanisms for an improved methane yield from the AD plant under ammonia-stressed condition. There is, however, lack of synthesized information on the mechanistic understanding of IET facilitation in the ammonia-stressed AD processes. This review critically discusses recovery of AD system from ammonia-stressed condition, focusing on H2 transfer, redox compoundmediated IET, and conductive material-induced direct IET. The effects and the associated mechanisms of IET stimulation on mitigating ammonia stress and promoting methanogenesis were elucidated. Finally, prospects and challenges of IET stimulation were critically discussed. This review highlights, for the first time, the critical role of IET stimulation in enhancing AD process under ammonia-stressed condition.

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